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chemistry science

STATES OF MATTER

STATES OF MATTER INTRODUCTION

Based on the physical property of matter these can be classified into solids, liquids, and gases. Solids have a definite volume and shape liquids have a definite volume but indefinite shape while gases neither have a fixed volume nor a fixed shape. All the three physical states of the matter occur due to the accumulation of the molecules in different states.

The physical state of matter is determined by intermolecular forces, molecular interaction and the effect of thermal energy on the motion of the particle.

INDEX

  • INTERMOLECULAR FORCES AND IT’S TYPES
  • GASEOUS LAWS
  • IDEAL GAS EQUATION
  • DALTON’S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE
  • KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF GASES
  • VAN DER WALLS EQUATION
  • IMPORTANT NCERT DEFINITIONS

INTERMOLECULAR FORCES

The force of attraction and repulsion between the interacting particle is called intermolecular forces.

It is different from the electrostatic forces between the oppositely charged ions that holds them together. It is also different from the covalent bond.

These force can be of following types:

  • DISPERSIVE FORCES: It is the force of attraction between the two non-polar molecules. It takes place due to instantaneous dipole. These forces are weakest amongst all the interactive forces.
  • DIPOLE-DIPOLE INTERACTION: These forces act between the molecules possessing a permanent dipole. The ends of the dipole possess partial charges which are always less than the charge of 1e.
  • DIPOLE-INDUCED DIPOLE: This type of interaction takes place between the molecules having permanent dipole and a non-polar molecule. When a non-polar molecule comes in contact with a polar particle, a polarity is induced in it. It is called an induced dipole.
  • HYDROGEN BOND: It is the special case of dipole-dipole interaction. It takes place between a positively charged hydrogen-bonded covalently with a high electro negatively. This type of interaction force is the strongest amongst all other interaction forces.
  • ION DIPOLE INTERACTION: The force of attraction between an ion and the opposite charge ends of a polar molecule is called ion-dipole interaction.
  • ION INDUCED DIPOLE INTERACTION: This type of interaction takes place when a non-polar molecule comes in contact with an ion and becomes polar. Such kind of interaction is called ion-induced dipole interaction.

GASEOUS LAWS

1. BOYLE’S LAW: At constant temperature the pressure of the fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to its volume.

PV=K

The graph drawn between the pressure and volume of the fixed amount of a gas at constant temperature is called an isotherm

2. CHARLES LAW: At constant pressure the volume of a fixed amount of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

V=TK, K=CONSTANT

3. GAY LUSSAC’S LAW: At constant volume, the pressure of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its temperature

P=TK

4. AVAGADRO’S LAW: At constant temperature and pressure, the volume of gases is directly proportional to its amount

V=nk

IDEAL GAS EQUATION

A gas that follows all the gaseous laws is called an ideal gas. An ideal gas can be explained by a single equation called the ideal gas equation.

PV=nRT

DALTON’S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE

According to this law-at constant temperature the total pressure exerted by the mixture of a gas which is non reacting in nature is equal to the sum of their partial pressure.

Let P is the total pressure exerted by the mixture of 4 non reacting gases and having their partial pressure as P1, P2 , P 3 and P4 respectively then acc to Daltons law

P= P1+P2 +P 3 +P4

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF GASES

According to this theory:

  • Every gas made up of very small identical particles called atoms and molecules.
  • The size of these particles is very small as compared to the distance between them.
  • The volume of these particles is also very small as compared to the volume occupied by gas that it can be neglected.
  • The intermolecular force between the particles of gas is also negligible therefore they can freely move constantly in all the directions.
  • While moving they keep on colliding with each other and also with the walls of vessels in which they are kept.
  • These collisions are perfectly elastic that is the total energy of the particles before and after the collision remains to conserve.
  • Due to these collisions the gases apply the pressure on the walls container.
  • Different particles of a gas may have different kinetic energy at some time.
  • The average kinetic energy of the particles of a gas is directly proportional to temperature.

VAN DER WAALS EQUATION

Real gas show deviation from ideal gas law because molecules interact with each other. At high-pressure molecules of gases are very close to each other. Molecular interaction starts operating.

At high-pressure molecules do not strike the walls of the container with full impact because these are dragged attractive forces. This affects the pressure exerted by the molecules on the walls of the container.

Repulsive forces also become significant. Repulsive interaction is short-range interaction and is significant when molecules are in contact.

The volume occupied by the molecules also become significant because instead of moving in volume V, these are now restricted to volume (V-nb). The equation is –

IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS IN STATES OF MATTER-

States of matter include several more parts. Now we are going to discuss several important definition from class 11 ncert states of matter important book definition-

  • COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORY- the ratio between PV and nRT is called the compressibility factor (Z).

Z=PV/nRT

  • BOYLE’S TEMPERATURE- the temperature at which a real gas behaves like an ideal gas over a long range of pressure is called its Boyle’s temperature.
  • CRITICAL TEMPERATURE- the temperature above which a gas can’t be liquefied on applying pressure is called its critical temperature.
  • Vapor PRESSURE- at a constant temperature the pressure applied by the vapor of a liquid on the walls of a container at liquid-vapor equilibrium is called its vapor pressure.
  • CRITICAL PRESSURE- the minimum pressure required to liquefy a gas at its critical temperature is called its critical pressure
  • CRITICAL VOLUME- the volume occupied by one mole of a gas at its critical temperature is called its critical volume.
  • SURFACE TENSION- The force acting at the right angle to the surface along a 1 cm length of a surface is called surface tension.
  • SURFACE ENERGY- It is the work done in erg require to be done to increase 1 cm sq area of a liquid.
  • VISCOSITY- The force that opposes the relative motion in the layers of a liquid is called viscous force and this property is called viscosity. The viscous force occurs due to the intermolecular force of attraction between the molecules of different layers of the liquid.

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CHEMICAL BONDING

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL BONDING

Before going inside the chemical bonding lets understand some easy terms.

A group of atoms existing together as one species and having characteristics properties is called a molecule.

This force which holds the atoms together within a molecule is called a chemical bond.

Many questions now arise:

  1. Why do atoms combine?
  2. Why is only a certain combination possible?
  3. Why do some atoms combine while certain others do not?
  4. Why do molecules possess definite shape?

To answer to above questions number of theories are proposed in chemical bonding. These are:

  1. Kossel Lewis approach
  2. Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory
  3. Valence bond theory
  4. Molecular orbital theory

KOSSEL LEWIS APPROACH

Several attempts were made to explain the formation of chemical bonds in terms of electrons, but it was only in 1916 when Kossel and Lewis succeeded independently in giving satisfactory results.

Kossel field of study was largely limited to inorganic compounds, lewis focused his attention towards organic compounds mainly.

The atoms of different elements combine to complete their respective octets or duplet in the case of H, Li and Be to attain stable noble gas configuration.

LEWIS SYMBOL

In the formation of a molecule, only the outer shell electron is involved and they are known as valence electron. The inner shall are well protected and are generally not involved in the combination process.

The outer shell electrons are shown in dots surrounding the symbol of the atom. These symbols are known as Lewis symbol or electron dot symbols. These symbols ignore the inner shell electrons.

lewis symbol.jpg

FACTORS FOR FORMATIONS OF IONIC BONDS

  1. The formation of a positive ion by loss of electrons from one kind of atoms.
  2. The formation of a negative ion by the gain of electrons from another kind of atoms
  3. Holding the positive and negative ions by electrostatic force of attraction

VALENCE BOND ELECTRON PAIR REPULSION THEORY

The central atom is linked to other atoms by covalent bonds which are formed by the sharing of electrons. Thus the central atom is surrounded by shared pairs of electrons and there may be some lone pair if electrons also present.

The stability of the molecule demands that it should have minimum energy. If the electron pairs surrounding the central atoms are nearer, they will repel each other, thereby increasing the energy of the molecule.

But if the electron is far apart, the repulsion between them will be less and so the energy of the molecule will below. Thus the main idea of VSEPR theory is :

The electrons pairs are surrounding the central atom repel one another and move so far apart from another that there is no further repulsion between them. As a result, the molecule has minimum energy and maximum stability.

The above concept leads in chemical bonding to the following results:

  1. The shape of a molecule containing only two atoms is always linear.
  2. For 3 or more atoms, one of the atoms is called the central atom to which other atoms are linked.
  3. If the central atom is linked with the same atoms then it has regular geometry otherwise distorted geometry.
  4. The exact shape depends on the total number of electrons pairs present around the central atom.
vseor.jpg

VALENCE BOND THEORY

This theory was put forward by Heitler and London in 1927 and further developed by Pauling and others.

According to this theory:

The formation of a covalent bond takes place due to the partial overlapping of half-filled atomic orbitals of two atoms containing the electrons of the opposite swing. The overlapping region shows the maximum probability of finding an electron in it.

Due to this It has the maximum electron density in it which attracts both the nuclei simultaneously towards itself and holds them tightly. This force is called a covalent bond. 

TYPES OF OVERLAPPING OF ATOMIC ORBITAL’S

1.HEADON OVERLAPPING: in which the atomic orbital overlap along the internuclear axis.

2.SIDEON OVERLAPPING: In which atomic orbital overlap at the right angle to the internuclear axis.

Hybridization

In chemical bonding we also need to understand about the hybridization.

The process of intermixing of atomic orbital’s of slightly different energies to redistribute their energy resulting in the formation of a new set of orbital’s or equivalent energy and shape is called hybridization.

In other words, the process of intermixing of atomic orbital’s of the same atoms and possessing nearly equal energies to produce new orbital’s of identical shape, size, and energies is called hybridization.

CONDITION FOR HYBRIDISATION

  • The orbital of the valence shell of an atom participate in hybridization
  • Hybridization takes place between the orbital’s of almost equal energies
  • Only half-filled orbital’s do not participate in hybridization even a filled orbital may get hybridize

  MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY

  1. When to molecular orbital’s combine or overlap they lose their identity and form new orbitals. The new orbital’s thus formed are called molecular orbital’s.
  2. Molecular orbitals are energy states of a molecule in which the electrons of the molecular are filed just as atomic orbitals are the energy states of an atom in which the electrons of the atoms are filled.
  3. A molecular orbital gives the electron probability distribution around a group of nuclei just as an atomic orbitals gives the probability distribution around a single nucleus.
  4.  Only those atomic orbital’s combine to form orbital’s which have comparable energies and proper orientation.
  5. No. Of molecular orbital’s formed is equal to the no. Of combining atomic orbital’s.
  6. When to molecular orbital’s combine they form two new orbital’s called bonding molecular orbital’s and antibonding molecular orbital’s.
  7. The bonding molecular orbital’s have lower energy hence it has high stability then antibonding molecular orbital.
  8. The shape of molecular orbital’s depending upon the combining of atomic orbitals.
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF BONDING MOLECULAR       ORBITAL’S
  • The probability of finding the electron in the internuclear region of the bonding molecular orbital is greater than that of the combining atomic orbital’s.
  • The electrons present in the bonding molecular orbital result in an attraction between the two atoms.
  • as a result of attraction, the bonding molecular orbital’s has lower energy and hence greater stability than that of the combining atomic orbital’s.
  • They are represented by π and σ.
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBONDING MOLECULAR ORBITALS
  • The probability of finding the electron in the intermolecular region decrease in the antibonding molecular orbital.
  • The electron present in the antibonding molecular orbital result in the repulsion between the two atoms.
  • Because of high repulsion they have higher energy and lower stability that is they do not favor the formation of bonds.
  • They are formed by the subtractive effect of the atomic orbital’s.
  • They are represented by π* and σ.

For more about molecular orbital theory visit molecular orbital theory

Opportunity

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MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY

MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY DEFINITION

To explain the characteristics of molecules like their relative bond strengths, paramagnetic and diamagnetic nature etc. Another theory was developed by Hund and Mullikan in 1932 which is known as molecular orbital theory.

Previously we have more theories to explain the bond results from the overlap of atomic orbital, the electron charge resides in the region between the atomic nuclei.

Theories account for directional nature of the bond, theories to predict the non existence of helium molecule and neon molecule, then why we need another theory?

The answer for this is that they all are failed to predict some important properties of elements like their stability, magnetic character bond strengths, etc.

molecular orbital theory image

INDEX

  • KEY FEATURES OF MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY (IMP)
  • MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF BONDING MOLECULAR ORBITALS
  • MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTI BONDING MOLECULAR ORBITALS
  • CONDITION FOR THE COMBINATION OF MOLECULAR ORBITALS
  • STABILITY OF MOLECULES
  • IMPORTANT NCERT DEFINITIONS
  • COMPARISON BETWEEN VALENCE AND MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORIES

KEY FEATURE OF MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY

  1. When to molecular orbital’s combine or overlap they loses their identity and form new orbitals.The new orbital’s thus formed are called molecular orbital’s.
  2. Molecular orbitals are energy states of a molecule in which the electrons of the molecules are filed. Just as atomic orbital’s are the energy states of an atom in which the electrons of the atoms are filled.
  3. A molecular orbital gives the electron probability distribution around a group of nuclei just as an atomic orbital’s gives the probability distribution around a single nucleus.
  4.  Only those atomic orbital’s combine to form orbital’s which have comparable energies and proper orientation.
  5. No. Of molecular orbital’s formed is equal to the no. Of combining atomic orbital’s.
  6. When to molecular orbital’s combine they form two new orbital’s called bonding molecular orbital’s and anti bonding molecular orbital’s.
  7. The bonding molecular orbital’s have lower energy hence it has high stability then anti bonding molecular orbital.
  8. The shape of molecular orbital’s depending upon the combining atomic orbitals.

MAIN CHARACTERSTICS OF BONDING MOLECULAR       ORBITAL’S

  • The probability of finding the electron in the internucler region of the bonding molecular orbital is greater than that of the combining atomic orbitals.
  • The electrons present in the bonding molecular orbital result in an attraction between the two atoms.
  • as result of attraction, the bonding molecular orbital’s has lower energy and hence greater stability then that of the combining atomic orbital’s.
  • They are represented by π and σ.

MAIN CHARACTERSTICS OF ANTIBONDING MOLECULAR ORBITALS

  • The probability of finding the electron in the intermolecular region decrease in the anti bonding molecular orbital.
  • The electron present in the antibonding molecular orbital result in the repulsion between the two atoms.
  • Because of high repulsion they have higher energy and lower stability that is they do not favour the formation of bond.
  • They are formed by the subtractive effect of the atomic orbital’s.
  • They are represented by π* and σ* .

CONDITION FOR THE COMBINATION OF MOLECULAR ORBITAL

The formation of molecular orbital’s can be explained on the basis of linear combination of atomic orbitals.

Due to combination of two atomic orbital’s the two new molecular orbital’s are formed , one by the additive effect and the other by the subtractive effect of atomic orbitals.

The molecular orbital formed by the additive effect and the other by the subtractive effect of the atomic orbital’s is called bonding molecular orbital.

The molecular orbital formed by the subtractive effect of the atomic orbital’s is called anti bonding molecular orbital.

It is important to note that compared with the energy of the combining atomic orbital’s.

The energy of the anti bonding molecular orbital is raised by an amount greater than the amount by which the energy of the bonding molecular orbital is lowered.

The reason for this lies in the fact that in the bonding molecular orbital , the electron density in the internuclear region (that is region between the nuclei) is high.

Thus, we conclude that the anti bonding orbital’s is more strongly anti bonding than the corresponding bonding orbital is bonding.

STABILITY OF MOLECULES BY MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY

If Nb is the number of electrons occupying bonding orbital’s and Na be the number occupying the anti bonding orbital’s , then

  1. The molecule is stable if Nb is greater than Na
  2. The molecules is unstable if Nb is less than Na

In 1 more bonding orbitals are occupied and so the bonding influence is stronger and a stable molecule results.

In 2 the anti bonding influences stronger and therefore the molecule is unstable.

     IMPORTANT NCERT DEFINATION

  • BOND ORDER: Bond order is defined as one half the difference between the number of electrons present in the bonding and the anti bonding orbital’s that is                                                                                          

    BOND ORDER (b.o)= Nb– Na

  • NATURE OF THE BOND: integral bond order values of 1,2 or 3 corresponding to single, double or triple bonds respectively as studied in above concepts.
  • BOND LENGTH: The bond order between two atoms in a molecular may be taken as an approximate measure of bond length. The bond length decrease as bond order increase.
  • MAGNETIC NATURE:  If all the molecular orbital’s in a molecule are doubly occupied, the substance is diamagnetic.However if one or more molecular orbital’s are singly occupied it is paramagnetic (attracted by magnetic field) example O2 molecule.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VBT AND MOT

VALENCE BOND THEORYMOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY
1.The atomic orbitals of the combining atoms retain a large amount of their individual character.1.atomic orbitals of the combining atoms lose their individual identity in the resulting molecular orbital’s.
2.Resonance plays an important role in this theory.2.Resonance has no role in this theory.
3.it fails to explain paramagnetism of o23.It explains easily the paramagnetism of o2
4.Mathematically, it is simple to apply.4.It is difficult to apply
5.It fails to explain the possibility and existence of H2+5.It explains the possibility and existence of H2+

MOLECLAR ORBITAL THEORY FROM WIKIPEDIA https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_orbital_theory

OPPORTUNITY

If you want to become entrepreneur you must have to read about financial management and top franchise business to start in india in 2020 also about marketing in brief

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businesses finance

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

FINANCE MANAGEMENT MEANING

The finance is the study how people and businesses evaluate investment and raise capital to fund them.Now understand about financial management.

The most popular and acceptable definition of financial management as given by S.C.Kushal is that “Financial Management deals with procurement of funds and their effective utilisation in the business”.

Weston and Brigham: Financial Management “is an area of financial decision-making, harmonising individual motives and enterprise goals”.

Joshep and Massie: Financial Management “is the operational activity of a business
that is responsible for obtaining and effectively utilizing the funds necessary for efficient operations”

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT DEALS IN-

  • Endeavors to reduce the cost of finance
  • Ensures sufficient availability of funds
  • Deals with the planning, organizing, and controlling of financial activities like the procurement and utilization of funds
COIN NUNDLE

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

1.MONEY HAS TIME VALUE

Now suppose I give you two choices and asked to pick one of them.

  • Choice 1:$1000 in 1 year from now
  • Choice 2:$100 today

Which you opt? simply you go for 100$ to save time and get opportunity right now.

2.RISK RETURN TRADE OFF

I give you same option but in giving you 100$ I can invest them in business.

The one thing you kept in your mind huge return potentially requires large investment/risks.Similarly smaller returns requires smaller risk.

THATS THE RISK /RETURN TRADE OFF WISELY

stock market trading graph

3.CASH FLOWS ARE THE SOURCE OF VALUES

Normally,profits are the counting concepts which gives the performance of business.Remember profits could be projected value but it is not compulsory you get profits out of business.

For example If I have a shirt store and I sold a shirt for $10.In which I have to pay rent,manufacturing cost and other liabilities for which I have to sold at least 10 shirts a day that is cash flow really is.

4.MARKET PRICE REFLECTS INFORMATION

This is more up look able to a public company meaning the information of the company available where public research means public domain.

If you watch the stock market as soon as companies earning came out stock raise accordingly,this may be the good example of market raises.You can ensure stocks from stocks in brief

5.INDIVIDUAL RESPONDS TO INCENTIVES

This is the fundamental theory that you need to understand If you want to be a successful manager or entrepreneur.The explanation about the agency theory or stewardship is extremely important.

The part you need to understand the people act on their behalf.For example,If you have a business you make sure your employees are well paid and their interest are well take care off,only then they can work for betterment of company.

I think that’s enough to understand the FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT.If you want to understand the marketing then read marketing in brief

OPPORTUNITY

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businesses franchise business

CAFE COFFEE DAY(CCD) FRANCHISE

CCD is of the major coffee parlour from India.This franchise spread ed throughout the nation or even in outside the country

The places like ccd may be the stress buster for you.You even can hangout with your friend and family with a beautiful cup of coffee.In my point of view this is quiet a good place for a date.

CCD established in 1996 on the streets of Bangalore.

As of 2018, Coffee Day have around 1,722 Cafe Coffee Day Cafe’s in over 200 cities in India with approximately 20,000 employees working and making revenue of about US$ 630 million.

CCD has also started operating in cities such as Austria, Czech Republic, Egypt and Nepal as well.

ccd logo

CCD FRANCHISE DETAILS

It was one of the most promising franchise of India.It has 50000+ satisfied customers a day throughout the country.

If you also want to be one of those who have made their life full of money by enjoying the revenue of this food and also Beverage Company, then here we are having complete information for all your related queries or any problem-related.

CCD FRANCHISE REQUIREMENTS

OUTLET-1000 – 1500 Sq Ft (Ground Floor)

FRONT-20 FEETS OF AREA

INVESTMENT- 12-14 LAKHS(INCLUDIND APPLIANCES)

PARKING AREA- NEEDED

PROFIT IN CCD– 4-5 LAKHS A MONTH (DEPENDING UPON LOCATION)

cup of ccd

HOW TO APPLY

RegionContact Person  E-Mail Address  
Bengaluru  Karthik B.S  Karthik@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
 Raju S.R  Raju.Sr@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
 Madhusudhan B.C  Madhusudhan.B@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
Tamil Nadu / Chennai  Harish  Harish.Kp@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
AP / Telangana / Hyderabad  Sarath Babu  Sarath.Babu@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
Kerala  Harigovind  Harigovind.H@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
North India / NCR  Nishant Ranjan  Nishant.Ranjan@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
 Abhishek Saxena  Abhishek.Saxena@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
 Syed Sahban  Sahban.S@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
 Jatan Sondhi  Jatan.Sondhi@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
Punjab / J&K  Nishant Ranjan  Nishant.Ranjan@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
 Satish Chand  Satish.Katoch@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
Kolkata  Bikash Shaw  Bikash.Shaw@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
Mumbai  Nikhil Khanolkar  Nikhil.K@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
 Ambish Kashmiri  Ambish.K@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
 Dilip Singh  Dilip.S@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
 Vishal Suvas Telkar  Vishal.T@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
Rest Of Maharashtra  Vikas Adsule  Vikasm@Cafecoffeeday.Com  
Gujarat  Malav Acharya  Malav.A@Cafecoffeeday.Com  

OR YOU CAN VISIT CCD INDIA and google

OPPORTUNITIES

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MARKETING

MARKETING MEANING

Marketing is based on thinking about the business in terms of customer needs and their satisfaction. The Marketing differs from selling because (in the words of Harvard Business School’s retired professor of marketing Theodore C. Levitt) “Selling concerns itself with the tricks and techniques of getting people to exchange their cash for your product. It is not concerned with the values that the exchange is all about. And it does not, as marketing invariable does, view the entire business process as consisting of a tightly integrated effort to discover, create, arouse and satisfy customer needs.” In other words, marketing has less to do with getting customers to pay for your product as it does developing a demand for that product and fulfilling the customer’s needs.Marketing meaning or marketing definition is simple as that.

marketing items
marketing meaning

WHY MARKETING IS IMPORTANT

(1) Marketing Helps in Transfer, Exchange and Movement of Goods:

Marketing is very helpful in transfer, exchange and movement of goods. Goods and services are made available to customers through various intermediaries’ viz., wholesalers and retailers etc. Marketing is helpful to both producers and consumers.

car caring goods
(2) Marketing Is Helpful In Raising And Maintaining The Standard Of Living Of The Community:

Marketing is above all the giving of a standard of living to the community. Paul Mazur states, “Marketing is the delivery of standard of living”. Professor Malcolm McNair has further added that “Marketing is the creation and delivery of standard of living to the society”.

By making available the uninterrupted supply of goods and services to consumers at a reasonable price, marketing has played an important role in raising and maintaining living standards of the community. Community comprises of three classes of people i.e., rich, middle and poor. Everything which is used by these different classes of people is supplied by marketing.

(3) Marketing as a Source of Income and Revenue

The performance of marketing function is all important, because it is the only way through which the concern could generate revenue or income and bring in profits. Buskirk has pointed out that, “Any activity connected with obtaining income is a marketing action. It is all too easy for the accountant, engineer, etc., to operate under the broad assumption that the Company will realise many dollars in total sales volume.

Marketing does provide many opportunities to earn profits in the process of buying and selling the goods, by creating time, place and possession utilities. This income and profit are reinvested in the concern, thereby earning more profits in future. Marketing should be given the greatest importance, since the very survival of the firm depends on the effectiveness of the marketing function.

coins bundle
(4) Marketing Acts as a Source of New Ideas:

The concept of marketing is a dynamic concept. It has changed altogether with the passage of time. Such changes have far reaching effects on production and distribution. With the rapid change in tastes and preference of people, marketing has to come up with the same.

Marketing as an instrument of measurement, gives scope for understanding this new demand pattern and thereby produce and make available the goods accordingly.

MARKETING SERVICES

Their are turns of companies which provide external marketing service like-

  • SEO
  • PPC
  • CONTENT MARKETING
  • SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING
  • EMAIL MARKETING
  • WEB DESIGN AND WEB DEVELOPMENT
  • BRAND MARKETING
  • EVENT MARKETING
  • MANY MORE

MARKETING AGENCY

Marketing agencies are provider of above mention marketing services.Marketing agencies are spread throughout the world.They have turns of millions of base and followers.

If you want to known top 10 marketing agencies visit top marketing agencies

OPPOURTUNITIES

Did you hear about franchise business if no then visit Franchise business

And top franchise business to start in india in 2020

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businesses

REAL ESTATE BUSINESSES

Real estate businesses is one of the most traditional type of business around the world.Real estate business may be family based or you start it as your own with your own investmesnt.

This may be considered as the most effective way of business which give you definate returns.The returns may be slow but it gives you out from your investment.

This business definatily needs time to established but when it stables it do not have any barrier.

man draws a building on black board as real state businesses

How Real estate businesses works

The Indian real estate industry comprises of several professionals who operate either from their own setups or are associated with renowned industry players. From builders to material suppliers and from architects and engineers to brokers and real estate agents – they are all a part of this booming industry and contributing in their own little ways to its success. Whether you are interested in exploring the Pune real estate market or want to cater to customers looking to buy property in banglore, or it’s for your potential realty customers in Noida, Gurgaon, Ahmedabad and Mumbai, you’ve got to go through the same drill as your counterparts.

Some more point to note to get in Real estate businesses

1. Attach to a political party who is in power
2. Once you do step 1 , go to a public sector bank ,co operative banks and enter a deal , you put 30 percentage of loan to the senior management
3. 30% of investment you keep for bearocrats , politicians
4. 20 percent you spend on advertisement
5. 20 percent use to build the product and sell with required profit,
6. 20 pecent keep for initial years interest payment , after that stop payment .
7. if you make profit save in some offshore banks . keep passport ready to move out at any time
8.if you make money or dont make money , never pay after 3 years , banks will write off it as NPA.
9. Once this is well executed , you are a business tycoon , get some padma awards and go to step one and continue .
coins building

HOW TO START

Step #1: Research and evaluate

Like in any other profession, to be able to enjoy a satisfactory stint in the real estate business, you need to research on the subject.

You could begin by seeking the inputs of industry veterans. Unless you come across as a competitor, they would be glad to share their overview and journey with you.

Nothing’s better than hearing it from the horse’s mouth and people who have been in the industry can show you both – the bright side and challenges of starting a venture in the real estate industry.

 Step #2: Pick and choose a specialty

As shared above, there are options aplenty in the real estate business. You could either get into commercial brokerage, residential brokerage, or land investments.

Depending on your preference and the available options (domain knowledge, budget, etc.) you could go ahead with either. To begin, it would be ideal to focus on one area and as you grow along the way, you could dabble in the rest. 

Step #3: Obtain the required licenses and registration

Although this was easily passed off earlier, with legal refinements and several real estate industry laws now in place, licenses and registration is now very important. Besides keeping your paper work clean, these make you come across as a serious professional and add to your customers’ confidence as well.

From registering your firm (as a Private Limited or Limited Liability Partnership) to obtaining service tax registration, real estate agent license, and GST registration – all are crucial and mandatory.

You will rarely find a real estate agent these days who lacks wouldn’t have any of these. So, prepare yourself to get these before you embark on the journey. 

Step #4: Chalk out a business plan

Now that you have the required registration and licenses in place, don’t miss to create a detailed business plan. Put all of your know-how into building this plan and ensure that the challenges, which you have identified, are duly addressed and you have mentioned a scope for improvement.

Your business structure, budget, funds, and team hiring strategy should all be mentioned in this blueprint. Certainly you can improvise on each area; but a business plan will provide a direction to begin with and hold your hand as you tread the path. 

Step #5: Put together a brilliant team

This step is very important as you’d not be able to do everything as a real estate business owner. Actually, there’s no need for it as well. You can manage everything from the peak but you should have members to do the work for you.

Don’t go lavish while hiring people but make sure that you hire the best. Be it the sales people or the business managers or the people to market your brand – build a team of professionals who do justice to the role you have chosen for them.

You can keep a mix of experienced and semi-experienced team members but remember to train the latter while on-boarding them so you are all on the same page.

 Step #6: Go online

Besides your offline presence, your online image too is important. Gone are the days when customers relied on the neighborhood grocery shop owner while they were looking for properties.

Today, customers look up the different websites much before they actually visit a real site. This helps them save time and effort and also helps them to gauge the different properties from several perspectives.

Therefore, put up a nice, comprehensive, and easy-to-navigate-through website and communicate your messages effectively. You can also use the website to display discounts and special offers! (Nobody hates a discount.).

All you have to do now is convert the queries into real deals and get your real estate business to flourish. However, remember to keep your customers happy as they are the ones. 

Step #7: Revisit step #1 and follow the steps to expand

Once you have become a ‘pro’ at your job, it’s now time to expand. You could choose a different specialty this time or expand in your own line of business. In either case, go back to the first step and walk this path again.

Thats how you start your own Real estate businesses

Other opportunities

If you want to invest money then you must read top franchise business to start in india in 2020

above information is collected from some experience and google

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franchise business

ECONOMY

ECONOMY MEANING

An economy is the large set of inter-related production and consumption activities that aid in determining how scarce resources are allocated.Economy meaning is the production and consumption of goods and services are used to fulfill the needs of those living and operating within the economy, which is also referred to as an economic system.

Lets understand What economy is,encompasses all activity related to production, consumption, and trade of goods and services in an area. An economy applies to everyone from individuals to entities such as corporations and governments. The economy of a particular region or country is governed by its culture, laws, history, and geography and it evolves due to necessity. For this reason, no two economies are identical.

ECONOMY  MEANING GRAPH
ECONOMY MEANING

LETS UNDERSTAND WHAT ECONOMY MEANS ACCORDING TO IT’S CONCEPT

The word economy is Greek and means “household management.Economics as an area of study was touched on by philosophers in ancient Greece, notably Aristotle, but the modern study of economics began in 18th century Europe, particularly in Scotland and France.

The Scottish philosopher and economist Adam Smith, who in 1776 wrote the famous economic book called The Wealth of Nations, was thought of in his own time as a moral philosopher. He and his contemporaries believed that economies evolved from pre-historic bartering systems to money-driven and eventually credit-based economies. 

During the 19th century, technology and the growth of international trade created stronger ties among countries.

A process that accelerated into the Great depression  and World War II. After 50 years of the Cold War, the late 20th and early 21st centuries have seen a renewed globalization of economies.

coins showing economy

TYPES OF ECONOMIES

The United States is considered a market economy where consumers and producers determine what’s sold and produced. Producers own what they make and decide their own prices, while consumers own what they buy and decide how much they’re willing to pay. 

  • Pure market economies rarely exist since there’s usually some government intervention or central planning. The United States could be considered as mixed economy. Regulations, public education, social security benefits are provided by the government to fill in the gaps from a market economy .As a result, the term market economy refers to an economy that is more market-oriented in general.
  • Command-based economies are dependent on a central political agent, which controls the price and distribution of goods. Supply and demand cannot play out naturally in this system because it is centrally planned, so imbalances are common.
  • Green economy depend on renewable, sustainable forms of energy. These systems operate with the end goal of cutting carbon emissions, restoring biodiversity, relying on alternative energy sources and generally preserving the environment. Green economies tend to focus on technological innovations that increase energy efficiencies. The goal of green economies is to provide consumption and production while reducing or eliminating any adverse impacts on the earth and its resources.
GREEN ECONOMY MEANING  SLIDE

STUDYING ECONOMICS

  • Microeconomics studies the behavior of individuals and firms in order to understand why they make the economic decisions.They do and how these decisions affect the larger economic system. In this you study why various goods have different values and how individuals coordinate and cooperate with each other. Microeconomics tends to focus on economic tendencies, such as how individual choices and actions impact changes in production.
  • Macroeconomics, on the other hand, studies the entire economy, focusing on large-scale decisions and issues. Macroeconomics includes the study of economy-wide factors such as the effect of rising prices or inflation on the economy.

visit top franchise business to start in india in 2020

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businesses online business

ONLINE BUSINESSES TO MAKE MONEY

Simplest way to make money is Online businesses only depends on someones potential and there greediness for money.In this digital revolution I am going to discuss about simplest way to make money online.

In this digital revolution you can easily earn money which helps you to fulfil you daily expense.If you are that much conscious to make money then you going to get enough money to fulfil your dreams to.

For earning money through internet you only need a laptop or mobile and a good internet connection and thats all from you.We all know how internet is vast for grabbing information through out the world,so why we cannot utilise it.You even earn 100$ a day by just doing work in free time and you do not need to quit your jab.

So without wasting much time we going to discuss about 5 websites that give you really good reasult if you are serious.

We are going to discuss way to create passive income.Passive income means you do not need to work whole day your income already generating if you are not working.

laptop offering money

1. UPWORKS.COM

Many company needs freelancers to work for them.At upworks.com you can find work according to your need.They pays you for your work and your income is based on your work.

You can visit them at UPWORKS.COM

2.YOUTUBE

I think you already aware about YouTube and potential.We do not need to wast time on this.The only thing that I suggest is that you make a videos on your interest.

3.AMAZON

You all heard about amazon.But amazon is only for selling products? not really.You can easily earn from amazon by becoming their affiliate and seller or even –

4.SHOPIFY

Shopify is one of the most under rated site in India.you can make money easily by dropshipping.In this you need to visit on shopify and create your website and sell products from Aliexpress and make your comission from this.Belive me this not much that hard which they appers to be.

5.TAKELESSONS.COM

We all are good in something.Then why we let it free? So Takelessons.com hels you out in this situation.You all you need to go on Takelessons.com and make your account and show up your talent their.

These are some online businesses to earn money online and create your passive incomes.

If you want to know about best franchise business then must read top franchise business to start in india in 2020

Categories
franchise business

KFC FRANCHISE IN INDIA

KFC franchise is another good option to get high returns in future.KFC is one of the most lovable food franchise around the world including India.

Food franchise are the most growing industry around the world with engaging around 1b peoples daily.KFC is one among them.Now we are going to discuss about the cost for kfc franchise in India.

KFC happens to be one of the fastest growing outlets in India. It was founded in the year of 1890. Today, there are above 200 outlets of KFC in different towns and cities in India

KFC franchise india logo
REQUIREMENTS

There is no such reqirement for KFC franchise.The only thing you need is area around 1000-2000 sq feets of area.With a store in publicaly busy are and there is no such requirements for franchise.

KFC FRANCHISE COST

Its Depends Where You live.
KFC, McDonald like companies give you franchise if you have 70L-1.20 CR. Rs in you Bank account as safety.
Second point you need to rent or buy a place.
Third point Is Machinery to make the food that cost around 50-60 Lakhs.
You have to give 10-20% of your sales to KFC.
You need to give them amount of fee 80-90 Lakhs and much more taxes.
so it will be ranging from 3-4 CR Rs (it can be less upto 1-1.5 CR) Depends where you live how the market is in your city.

PROFIT

If you do manage to open a, then the profits could range from 2–5 times of your investment amount, depending on the region you have opened the same in. It usually takes you 18–24 months to break even as a franchise owner.

For further details you can visit KFC india

opportunities

for more profitable franchise details visit top franchise business to start in india in 2020

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